64°34'00"N 39°50'00"E Arkhangelsk, located on the delta of the Dvina River as it enters the White Sea, is the oldest seaport in Russia. It is also a major port, provincial capitol, and the largest city on the Russian Arctic Coast. Arkhangelsk is icebound up to 190 days annually, so icebreakers are used to maintain shipping traffic.
Located about 30 miles across the delta of the Northern Dvina River from the city of Arkhangelsk is Severodvinsk, home to the world's largest shipyard. Severodvinsk was built to make the Northern Fleet independent of the Baltic shipyards and serves as the principal Russian shipyard for the Northern Fleet.
Severodvinsk is a second largest city in the Arkhangelsk region, with a population of 240,000 people. The city, about 650 miles north of Moscow, was built in the 1930s to support Stalin's naval ship-building program. Construction of the city began in June 1936 on the deserted banks of the Severnaya Dvina (North Dvina) River by thousands of prisoners. The new city was named Molotovsk on 11 August 1938. By the start of the Great Patriotic War, the city housed 40,000 people. The sea port opened in December 1941. More than a half of the cargo received through lend-lease from England and the US going to Arkhangelsk was actually unloaded in Molotovsk. Molotovsk was renamed Severodvinsk in 1957.